Otter-Grader also allows instructors to use Gradescope’s autograding system to collect and grade students’ submissions. This section assumes that instructors are familiar with Gradescope’s interface and know how to set up assignments on Gradescope; for more information on using Gradescope, see their help pages.

Writing Tests for Gradescope

The tests that are used by the Gradescope autograder are the same as those used in other uses of Otter, but there is one important field that is relevant to Gradescope that is not pertinent to any other uses.

As noted in the second bullet here, the test variable has a "hidden" key which maps to a boolean value that indicates the visibility of the test on Gradescope. For any test, if test["hidden"] evaluates to False, then the test result will be shown to students when they submit to Gradescope. If they pass, the test name will show in a green box; if they fail, then the usual failed test output will show.

For more information on how tests are displayed to students, see below.

Using the Command Line Generator

To use Otter with Gradescope’s autograder, you must first generate a zipfile that you will upload to Gradescope so that they can create a Docker image with which to grade submissions. Otter’s command line utility otter gen allows instructors to create this zipfile from their machines.

Before Using otter gen

Before using otter gen, you should already have

  • written tests for the assignment
  • created a Gradescope autograder assignment
  • have collected extra requirements into a requirements.txt file (see here).

Directory Structure

For the rest of this page, assume that we have the following directory structure:

| hw00-dev
  | - data.csv
  | - hw00-sol.ipynb
  | - hw00.ipynb
  | - requirements.txt
  | -
  | tests
    | -
    | -
  | hidden-tests
    | -
    | -

Also assume that we have cded into hw00-dev.


The general usage of otter gen is to create a zipfile at some output path (-o flag, default ./) which you will then upload to Gradescope. otter gen has three optional flags:

Flag Default Value Description
-t, --tests-path ./tests Path to directory of tests
-o, --output-path ./ Path at which to write the zipfile
-r, --requirements ./requirements.txt Path to requirements.txt file

If you do not specify -t or -o, then the defaults will be used. If you do not specify -r, Otter looks in the working directory for requirements.txt and automatically adds it if found; if it is not found, then it is assumed there are no additional requirements. There is also an optional positional argument that goes at the end of the command, files, that is a list of any files that are required for the notebook to execute (e.g. data files, Python scripts).

The simplest usage in our example would be

otter gen

This would create a zipfile with the tests in ./tests and no extra requirements or files. If we needed data.csv in the notebook, our call would instead become

otter gen data.csv

Note that if we needed the requirements in requirements.txt, our call wouldn’t change, since Otter automatically found ./requirements.txt.

Now let’s say that we maintained to different directories of tests: tests with public versions of tests and hidden-tests with hidden versions. Because I want to grade with the hidden tests, my call then becomes

otter gen -t hidden-tests data.csv

Now let’s say that I need some functions defined in; then I would add this to the last part of my otter gen call:

otter gen -t hidden-tests data.csv

Pass/Fail Thresholds

The Gradescope generator supports providing a pass/fail threshold. A threshold is passed as a float between 0 and 1 such that if a student receives at least that percentage of points, they will receive full points as their grade and 0 points otherwise.

The threshold is specified with the --threshold flag:

otter gen -t hidden-tests data.csv --threshold 0.75

For example, if a student passes a 2- and 1- point test but fails a 4-point test (a 43%) on a 25% threshold, they will get all 7 points. If they only pass the 1-point test (a 14%), they will get 0 points.

Overriding Points Possible

By default, the number of points possible on Gradescope is the sum of the point values of each test. This value can be overrided, however, to some other value using the --points flag, which accepts an integer. Then the number of points awarded will be the provided points value scaled by the percentage of points awarded by the autograder.

For example, if a student passes a 2- and 1- point test but fails a 4-point test, they will receive (2 + 1) / (2 + 1 + 4) * 2 = 0.8571 points out of a possible 2.

As an example, the command below scales the number of points to 3:

otter gen -t hidden-tests data.csv --points 3

Showing Autograder Results

The generator lastly allows intructors to specify whether or not the stdout of the grading process (anything printed to the console by the grader or the notebook) is shown to students. The stdout includes a summary of the student’s test results, including the points earned and possible of public and hidden tests, as well as the visibility of tests as indicated by test["hidden"].

This behavior is turned off by default and can be turned on by passing the --show-results flag to otter gen.

otter gen -t hidden-tests data.csv --show-results

If --show-results is passed, the stdout will be made available to students only after grades are published on Gradescope. The next section details more about what is included in the stdout.

Gradescope Results

This section details how results are displayed to students and instructors on Gradescope.

Instructor View

Once a student’s submission has been autograder, the Autograder Results page will show the stdout of the grading process in the “Autograder Output” box and the student’s score in the side bar to the right of the output. The stdout includes a DataFrame that contains the student’s score breakdown by question:


Below the autograder output, each test case is broken down into boxes. If there is no output for the box, then that test was passed. If a test is failed, then the usual test failure output is displayed.


Instructors will be able to see all tests. The visibility of a test to students is indicated to instructors by the _images/gradescope_hidden_test_icon.png icon (all tests with this icon are hidden to students).

Student View

On submission, students will only be able to see the results of those tests for which test["hidden"] evaluates to True (see Test Files for more info). If test["hidden"] is False or not specified, then test is hidden.

If --show-results was specified when constructing the autograder zipfile, then the autograder output from above will be shown to students after grades are published on Gradescope. Students will not be able to see the results of hidden tests nor the tests themselves, but they will see that they failed some hidden test in the printed DataFrame from the stdout.

Note that, because some tests are hidden, students will never see the autograder score in the right sidebar; instead, their score will only show as a dash - out of the points possible. Therefore, the only way for students to calculate their autograder score is to use the DataFrame printed to the stdout if --show-results is passed.